"Life begins at the end of your comfort zone."

~Neale Donald Walsch~

Sunday, 5 February 2017

What a great time to be a teacher!!

Starting a new year often allows time for reflection but also a chance to think in new ways about old challenges and new ones that might happen this year. Having been working on my Masters of Education and participating on the conference junkit for the last few years I have stretched my professional learning far more than I would have ever imagined. The last few years have been rich with sharing, pondering and experimentation and it's not going to end anytime soon.

Google for Education Certified Trainer

Like many teachers in the break you get to do some serious thinking and learning without all the other usual distractions. I am so pleased to have been accepted as a Google for Education Certified Trainer. This means that I will be sharing much more about Google for Education this year.

You have heard it first from me that this year I will be providing FREE training for those wishing to learn about Google for Education. If you are on the Central Coast in NSW, Australia then you can stop on by. Stop by for some afternoon tea, networking and learning. You can check out the dates on the calendar for the group that might suit you. Tech and Tea will provide you with hands on training that suits your learning group.

Virtual Reality

Just for fun in the holidays my 14 year old son and I decided to try and nut out how we could do some serious virtual reality apps for carpentry students. We both love the Microsoft Hololens and even though we don't have one we thought we might be able to code for it. Here is the video of our project and we are hoping to use it soon.


I would like to make a shout out to a colleague of mine Shane Johnson, a carpentry teacher in the North Coast region. He shared some of his ideas about how we could use augmented reality for carpentry students and boy were my fellow carpentry teachers at work excited. This is a great app for 3D modelling and one we will be using this year.

I guess in terms of virtual reality I will be closely watching how drones can be used to capture construction pics and video we can use for teaching and learning as well as new virtual reality goggles and apps that will be rolled out in mass over the next few years. It is such an exciting time to be a teacher. There is a real technology revolution that is exploding and it's fun to be part of.

Hope all my teaching friends have a great year!

Until next time,

Tuesday, 23 August 2016

i On The Future

I had a great weekend at this amazing conference. A few weeks ago I attended the EdtechSA conference and presented on the Crisis of the Introvert. I'll need a whole blog post for that one. Anyway there were some strong messages that came out of this conference. As a secondary and TAFE teacher it is interesting attending conferences where the majority of the teachers are primary based. They definitely have a different way of looking at things and I am finding this quite refreshing.

For most of this year I have been designing online resources for trade courses. Whilst I love working with the tradies to develop these courses I am missing the classroom. So I need to prioritise working on a balance. I love to work with the teachers to mentor blended learning and student engagement as well as my online work. This was one of the big take-a-ways from both conferences.


There is always a lot of emphasis on assessment in teaching. Obviously. We want to see how are students are developing in their skills and understanding. Once again Eric Mazur (@ericmazur) reminded me the importance of Blooms Taxonomy in developing skills.
It's important at times to teach new information or demonstrate a new skill but it's all the more important for students to then be able to create and apply these skills. Without the time to use these higher order thinking skills they will never have confidence to do the task well or be able to demonstrate real quality with their work.

My two favorite quotes from Eric are,
"Perfect is the enemy of done" 
"Teaching is non evasive brain surgery"

Too often students think that 90% will do. "Perfect, I'm done." There can always be improvement and reflection.

Learners need to be connected to learning

Dean Shareski (@shareski) reminded us that joy is a key component in teaching and learning. Emotionally connecting helps cement memories much more strongly than when students are empty vessels filling their brains with content.

Kevin Honeycutt (@kevinhoneycutt) inspired us with some of his projects where students have the opportunities to be entrepreneurs and make a difference. Check out the amazing GoDium project.

I love this quote from Kevin

Dan Haesler (@danhaesler) at the EdtechSA conference also highlighted the need to have learning that is going to stretch students and give them real world experiences. I love the idea of students writing proposals for real work and encouraging entrepreneurship. Freelancer is a great site where students can solve real problems and get paid to do it!

There were great conversations and many more inspiring messages however they will have to wait for another blog post. 

Until next time,


Saturday, 12 March 2016

Why do students hate Moodle?

Hello my blog, old friend. It has been quite some time since I paid you any attention. However the is all going to to change. I'm sick of all these ideas and thoughts rolling around in my head and the best therapy for lots of ideas is to get them down. So over the next few weeks I shall try to jot down some of my thoughts over the last few months in a series of blog posts.

In the last few weeks I have conversations with a range of teachers from both the public, private and VET sectors about Moodle. Why is it that students don't like it?

When Moodle started it was a revolutionary way to share all your class work with your students and have them interact with you and each other and also it took away the anxiety and worry about notes being lost or crushed in school bags. Teachers have long held the idea that knowledge is the gateway to success, enlightenment and understanding so just as the humble photocopier revolutionised access to the knowledge of teacher's via their notes Moodle was able to give students access to knowledge through the new culture of technology and content curation.

Some teachers saw Moodle as a product that would revolutionise Education and to a certain degree it
Image by presentermedia.com
did however for the less tech savvy teachers it was clunky, unyielding, time consuming and overly complicated. The students on the other hand initially were enthusiastic but as time has worn on the appearance and drudgery of using Moodle for assignments became a burden and not such a cool use of technology. Many teachers hadn't realised the real capability of the program nor did they have the time, energy or skills level to use it. It became the knowledge repository of the classroom which was accessed only when you needed to check when an assignment was due or when it needed to be uploaded. Sad really, as many Institutions did put it to good use and it became a global sensation to those who used it well.  

So what's changed?

I think there are three things that have changed in the mind of the user and they have an appetite for something different.

1. Students expect the technology that they use to be user friendly and aesthetically pleasing. They want the online experience to have easy navigation and yet it be presented in a way that is still challenging and they can chat about these things with their peers. It must have social capability that is similar to other ways they interact socially online.

2. It needs to be accessed and viewed easily over multiple devices. Sometime companies say that it is mobile friendly but when you go to use it on your mobile it's so different to the computer experience that you can't find anything you need.

3. There needs to be points of emotional connection. Whether or not teachers are producing elearning content or flip teaching students need praise when they get something right and guidance if they are heading in the wrong direction. There has to be the opportunity for a human connection. The problem with Moodle quizzes is that there is always the predicted right answer unless the quiz is set up for short writing pieces that are not self marking. You can't ask for clarification. This can be frustrating. In some cases you probably know the answer it's just the question is not clear and you doubt what they are really asking. If a student is working on an online quiz there needs to be the option to talk to a real human because teaching for thousands of years has been a conversational business. (Doring, 1999)

Image @ bigstockphotos.com

If our students are playing online games at home with their friends and they are working through the challenges and levels of a game and get stuck they with will always default to the online chat to find a work around. So why do we allow this kind of learning in a game but not in our online programming of learning activities as a whole? Obviously I am grossly generalising as I know there are some programs and teachers who do this but I find in much of the conversation I have with teachers and students the real lack of connection about how young people want to learn and think in a digital age. There is still a mindset at times that it is the pursuit of knowledge is key but what has changed it that it is the skill in accessing knowledge is becoming far more useful.

I had the absolute privilege in the last few weeks to test run an eCoach learning system by Futura. I would encourage you to have a look. I have no financial connection to this it's just another tool I have come across and I love it! If you are a teacher that loves flip teaching then I would encourage you to check it out. It does plug into Moodle so if your school or organisation is a Moodle fun place then it is certainly one to consider.

Conference Loop from Futura Group on Vimeo.

Students want a more polished, meaningful and aesthetically pleasing interactive elearning experience. I would encourage you to think outside the box.

Until next time,


    Conole,G. (2012). Open, social and participatory media, Chapter 4. Designing for learning in an open world. New York, NY: Springer. 

    Craft,A. (2003). The limits to creativity in education: Dilemmas for the educator. British Journal of Educational Studies, 51(2), 113-127.Retrieved fromhttp://web.nsboro.k12.ma.us/algonquin/faculty/socialstudiesteachers/smith/documents/thelimitsofcreativityineducationarticle.pdf

    Doring,(1999). In Selwyn, N., Gorard, S. and Furlong, J, 2006. Adult learning in a digital age. Routledge: New             York (KindleEdition)

    Ford, N. (2008). Education. In N. Ford (Ed.), Web-Based Learning through Educational Informatics: Information Science Meets Educational Computing (pp. 75-109). Hershey, PA: .doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-741-6.ch003

    Kafai,(2006). In Becker, K. (2010). Distinctions between games and learning: A review of current literature on games in education.In R. Van Eck (Ed.), Gaming and cognition: Theories and practice from the learning sciences (pp. 22-54). Hershey, PA: .doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-717-6.ch002

Tuesday, 20 October 2015

A Global Perspective

This year my poor blog has suffered from lack of attention. I started my Masters of Education earlier in the year and had to keep a blog for that course so I haven't really been able to maintain two blogs. However I am taking a break from my Masters until next year so I return. Once again I feel like I am returning to an old friend. So what have I been up to.....

June ISTE Conference

In June I flew to Philadephia, USA for the ISTE conference with 20 000 other teachers. It was huge to say the least. I spoke at the TeachMeet which was fantastic and I would say that the TeachMeet was a highlight event for me. I was able to connect with some other Aussie teachers who I know now will be life long friends.

Some of the key themes from ISTE:

  • gamification will drive learning in the future, 
  • students will learn more effectively when they are having fun,
  •  augmented reality is a developing area for education, 
  • there is tension around the use of Google products, social media and student privacy,
  • collaboration that is relevant and meaningful to students connects with them at a deeper level and develops long term communication skills
  • developing communication and problem solving skills for students is key to survival in an information society.

September Engage Conference
A month ago I also was able to attend the inaugural Engage conference for TAFE NSW. It was great to hear and see how are others are incorporating blended learning into their practice and how they are developing courses for online learning. There was great conversation about learning spaces and the integration of technology in these spaces. Mike Heppell was insightful in the direction that online learning needs to take and solid pedagogy must drive learning and much planning needs to take place before courses are delivered.

October Practical Pedagogies
Finally I have just returned from France where I presented at the Practical Pedagogies conference in Toulouse. I really enjoyed the rich conversation with a very European perspective and it was great to hear about the challenges and success of teachers in Europe.

There seems to be similar ways that teachers are using technology and blended learning in the classroom and there is a developing industry of educational technology consultants or instructional designers to support teachers as they develop blended learning resources. I must say that the USA is definitely leading the charge on this however Britain is really adopting this kind of support much more so than Australia.

Image at bigstockphotos.com
Once again at all three conferences I see that we are moving into a new phase of education technology. There is an acceptance that technology is here to stay and there has been some real experimentation in the best ways to deliver online and blended learning. We are now in the 'how' phase and it is interesting to see that there is a real need to map blended technology with curriculum and pedagogy as technology is not a fly by night trick. What has also come out of some good conversation is the need to consider the use of technology in the learning space so that students are comfortable and they have the capacity to collaborate and learn together.

Ewan McInsosh has much to say about virtual and physical learning spaces and I have found the 7 spaces for learning helpful to create a holistic approach to learning.

The Seven Spaces of Technology in School Environments from NoTosh on Vimeo.

Thornburg's Primordial Learning spaces also can be helpful in assisting students with critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Campfire, Watering hole and Cave.

Data Usage

 Another key trend is data usage. Now more than ever we can give students more feedback about their work and we can track areas for improvement like never before. Keeping data that can provide overall insight into how a student are going in specific learning areas will be helpful in the future to assist students with areas for development that can be picked up quickly and more precisely.


There is still concern over students rights and privacy in cyber space and there are many schools in Europe who are unsure about how Google is going about keeping the students data and what they are going to do with it. Is seems as though this is an area that is still developing and whilst many schools are using Google's Apps for Education there are still some who aren't convinced that this is the way to go.

Problem Solving and Critical Thinking

I must say that at all three conferences there was a greater emphasis on this point than I have seen
Image at bigstockphotos.com
over the last few conferences I have attended over the years. It seems to me that in an information society it will be key for people to have good problem solving skills and use critical thinking in the workplace and the level of competency in this area in particular is really growing. Teacher's will need to use collaboration in class activities but also provide students the ability to collaborate online and be creative in how they identify and solve problems.

Australia is a player

Lastly Australia is a player in the areas of education technology. This was clearly seen at all three conferences and through rich conversations I can see that Australia has been engaging in quality education practice as well. There were many teachers who felt that #AussieEdchat was an excellent place to find resources and that many of the Australian twitter chats are being followed around the world. Many conversations that I had included discussion about how Australia was being innovative and creative in the education technology space and the world is watching and taking note.

These last few months have been educational rich as I explored what was going on around the world in the area of education technology. What I found is a dedicated group of enthusiastic and passionate teachers like myself who strive everyday to care for their students and engage them in learning activities. I also have found a spirit of generosity to share and support fellow teachers and this global perspective makes the world very small as education communities are engaging with each other like never before.

This is but a small brain dump and I hope to blog more about my experiences over the coming weeks.

Until next time,

Tuesday, 1 September 2015

Full Immersion

This blog post is some recent thinking I have had in relation to my Masters Degree and is copied from my blog for this subject. 

I have been very slack in writing blog posts this semester and I don't quite know why. Last semester we were really pushed to write posts and I was very excited too however this semester is different. One reason is that I started a new job and have been flat out busy with that but that's not really an excuse because I have been crazy busy before and still managed to post. So it has to be a bit deeper than that. I think there are three reasons that have held me back and I think I need to dig deeper and explore these a little more.

Going underground
Underground Train In Mine, Carts In Gold, Silver And Copper Mine
Image by TTStudio @ bigstockphotos.com
There have been some really major changes to the industry I work in over the last 12 months. There are been times when I have felt overburdened by the enormity of the changes and job insecurity. This has impacted on my creativity and my usual unending supply of exhausting energy. I knew I was a frog in a pot slowly being heated but didn't know how to get out. I needed time to process and I didn't realise that takes time.
I love this course. It has come at the right time in my career. Tim Brown's states, "In times of change we need new alternatives and new ideas." A cross road can provide the opportunity for reflection and an opportunity to veer to a new course. The many and various theories around Design Thinking has so challenged me in the last few weeks I decided to go underground to think, mull and discuss my thinking with my new colleagues. This has provided me the opportunity to challenge how I go about developing new learning opportunities for students in the space available to me.
When I was approached to do this new job I was given a problem. Very loose figures were that 1/3 of the students were not passing the course and I was to be part of the process of fixing it. The Head Teacher didn't know how this would happen but looked at my skill set and he has employed me to assist with the problem. He wants me to think out of the box. With this in mind I turned to Seidel and Fixon (2013, p.20) and found their ideas were a good place to start and structure how I was thinking as a means to work out exactly what the problem was and then develop strategies to work on the problem in order to fix and find a solution.
(1) needfinding, encompassing the definition of a problem or opportunity through observation; (2) brainstorming, a formal framework for ideation; and (3) prototyping, building models to facilitate the development and selection of concepts.
The Design Council was also helpful as they framed their concepts; “Discover the problem; Define the cause; Develop ideas; Deliver what works.” When a problem seems so complex it is difficult to know where to start and the Standford Design School's visual below is also great in being able to visualise the process before you get caught up with all the issues. The colours were an appealing way to break up thinking and these really helped me be disciplined in my thinking and I became very deliberate in the process rather than just trying to work on small individual problems that arose.
Design process

Full immersion
So I decided to fully immerse myself in the culture and processes of my new job. I knew nothing about the Building and Construction Industry so nothing was where I started from. I sat in loads of lessons with lots of different teachers. I had conversations all day long about what was wrong, what was right and how it could change. The conversations were rich and exploratory. According to Braha and Reich (2003), "the design process is characterized by being iterative, exploratory, and sometimes a chaotic process." This is exactly what happened. What came out of some of these conversations were the opportunities for the teachers frustrations to be heard, and these were taken to heart and provided them with a platform to feel the pain and address the heart of the problem. Their feelings were validated. Many said that there was always change in the Industry and that living with constant change is part of the job however there is a cost associated with the great change to their beloved Industry and the consequence of all of this is that it had stifled their creativity. After a few weeks the discussion turned to the heart of the problem and small strategies began to be devised as enthusiasm grew.

The Crisis
After a few weeks I had been working closely with two teachers who had been given the task of working with a group of students who faced unique challenges. We had discussed, strategised and implemented some new teaching strategies and 99% of the group passed the assessment. This feat had never been done before with this group and there was real sense of achievement from the group and the teachers were greatly encouraged.
Hands Of A Woman Squeezing A Stress Ball
Image by Totmn @ bigstockphotos.com
I was thrilled with the result at such an early stage in my work. However it was short lived as I received some news that totally threw me. A permanent teacher from another section needed hours and was after my job. There had been some changes in management in the new section that I work for and they had only just found out about me and weren't necessarily too pleased that I was taking up valuable teaching hours. However I had the support of the new Head Teacher and through very successful maneuvering on his part I was able to stay put for the time being.
This stress caused me to really evaluate what I was doing there and what my goals and aims were for the job. It forced me to sit down and put together a proposal or a plan for what I could contribute as an innovator to the section. This was a true moment of clarity for me.

An awakening
I was powerfully influenced by John Hockenberry's video about the intent of design and this steered my thinking in new directions as I was put on a new class. The word 'innovation' gets bandied around a lot and whilst I had my own understanding of it I hadn't really grasped the full extent of it until I watched Linda Hill's TED Talk on Innovation and I have come to a new realisation that the process of innovation doesn't happen over night but it is deliberate and requires risk and whole lot more!

Design thinking has kept me grounded and assisted with keeping my focus on what's important in this new venture and I'm excited and where it will take me. Having opportunity for leadership in this male dominated industry has been challenging yet so rewarding. Men who work on building sites are used to being a team player and my colleagues couldn't be more supportive. With a re-energised team and the opportunity to push new ground in teaching delivery it's very exciting. Watch this space!
Braha and Reich 2003. In Razzouk, R., & Shute, V. (2012). What is design thinking and why is it important? Review of Educational Research, September, 82 (3), 330–348. http://rer.sagepub.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/content/82/4/483.full.pdf+html
Brown, T (2009, July). Designers- Think big! [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_brown_urges_designers_to_think_big 
Gardiner, E. (2013). Changing behaviour by design: Combining behavioural science with design-thinking to help organisations tackle big social issues. Design Council & Warwick Business School. Retrieved from:https://www.designcouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/asset/document/Changing%20behaviour%20by% 20design.pdf p.5
Hill, L (2014, September). How to manage for collective creativity [Video File] Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/linda_hill_how_to_manage_for_collective_creativity 
Hockenberry, J (2012, March). John Hockenberry: We are all designers [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/john_hockenberry_we_are_all_designers?language=en#t-5489 
Seidel, V., & Fixson, S. (2013). Adopting design thinking in novice multidisciplinary teams: The application and limits of design methods and reflexive practices. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30, 19–33.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12061 or http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/doi/10.1111/jpim.12061/pdf

Thursday, 2 July 2015

Getting on with it

The last week has been crazy and awesome at the ISTE Conference in Philadelphia. I was so excited to deliver my presentation on Gaming and Socratic thinking. My talk focused on the pedagogy behind gaming and why it is so important to get the planning right so that learning can be fun, critical and creative. We want our students to gain skills to be masters of their own learning. My presentation was really well received and I had some great conversations about it after. I have been asked to speak at another conference in the UK in October and hope I can get the finances together to go. I want to break up this post into common themes in conversations that I had and my takeaways from the conference that I need to implement. 

Conversation theme 1: Tech tools
Tools are great but you need to the pedagogy and the reasoning behind the tool before you use it. There seemed to me to be a lot about Google Apps and tools and not so much about the pedagogy and application. The tools have been around for some time now and they aren't new anymore. There was very little there that I hadn't seen before or that I don't already use in the classroom and so this says to me that Aussie's are really on top of what is going on in Edu tech.  

Conversation theme 2: Assessment

Around there world educators are drowning in assessment reporting and standardised testing and this time is taking away from really creative and innovative teaching. Administration is taking over our lives and teacher's are resenting the negative impact this is having on students. There needs to be accountability but trying to fit every one in the same box isn't really working. The assessments aren't necessarily helping students to become autonomous in their learning nor masters of their own learning style and skills. These standardised tests are a reflection not of the current digital age but of those concepts that were important in an industrialised age not an information society. 

Conversation theme 3: Confidence in digital spaces
The whole conference was about education and technology but there were many conversations about the skills needed for students to cope in a digital age. It is clear that there is a widening gap concerning those who have access to technology and those who don't. There was also a lot of chatter about the importance of having parents on board and being able to provide them with information about the fun learning opportunities that their kids were having at school. 

Takeaway 1: Have fun

There have been times this term when I have been really bogged down in paperwork. The new admin system at work is not functioning like it should and it has taken up a lot of time to get things fixed. 
This has impacted on my time to be creative and I feel that has always been key to how I teach and I haven't been having fun. Al Doyle has a great motto which is that he needs to be having more fun that everyone else in the room. If the teacher isn't have fun then how can we expect our learners to enjoy learning. 

Takeaway 2: Gamify

There are ways that I can incorporate more gamification and game design in teaching and learning and I need to step up more with this. There are so many tools and even in an adult learning environment they can be incorporated. 

Takeaway 3: Collaboration
I really enjoyed the session on Mystery Skype. I love the idea that you can connect with other teachers and the class has to work out where they are in the world. I really would like to connect with other TPC classes around the state and this would be a great way of doing this. Working together makes life so much easier and richer. 

Takeaway 4: Augmented Reality

I loved the session on Augmented Reality and didn't realise that it is such a growing field. My new party trick is the app Zookazam. You do need an American $1 bill or you can print background triggers from their website. If you are really clever you can move the elephant from the bill onto your hand. The elephant moves and looks around. If you touch it the elephant will move. So much fun to be had there. 

With information overload I know I will be thinking over and over things and going back over sessions in the coming weeks. Just before I left the conference I wrote an email to my self using Future.org and will receive it a year from now. I wonder if I will have accomplished what I set out to do from the conference. Interesting. 

Anyway I hope all my Aussie teacher friends are enjoying their holidays. Safe travels. 

Until next time,

Wednesday, 6 May 2015

Looking through a different lens

This is a blog post from the blog I have been using to reflect on my learning for my Masters Degree. 

I live in a 'geeky' household. I was chatting to my Mr13 in the house the other day and I was telling him about Teach Meet. At the moment I have a year 12 student who has been doing the live streaming for the event each year. I said to him it would be great if I could ask him to train my Mr13 in case Mr Year 12 student went off to uni in Sydney and I lost those skills and would have no one to live stream for me. (I clearly don't have the time or the inclination to learn such detailed coding.) So we were chatting about it and he said wouldn't it be cool if the people who couldn't make Teach Meet that night were able to use Hololens to join in. He said wouldn't it be cool if they signed up for teach meet and you sent them some Hololens glasses ( a little less chunky than the ones in the video below. A bit more like the 3D glasses you get at the movies )or they had some and just had to sign in or something like that and they would completely feel like they were there on the night. The people at home would be able to interact with the event on the night in a much more engaging way.

Whilst he is only 13 he is thinking in a connected way. Thinking about how to use technology to bring people together. Who knows in the future holograms of people might be virtually sitting in the lecture theatre projected from their lounge at home. Beethan (2009) talks about the need for future learners to be digital entrepreneurs and I can see that students these days naturally think about creative and innovative ways to use technology that will benefit not only themselves but the broader community of learners. A few years ago I began to follow the work of Alex Miller from North Coast Institute of TAFE and her virtual classroom.

De Frietas and Colone (2010) talks about the need for students to be part of 'participatory learners' and virtual classrooms begins to address this concept but also aligns with Rheingold's view that human interaction is still an important part of learning. It seems as though some learners are happy to be in a space where the connection is somewhat distant (blog, social media, texting) from an actual face to face interaction with a physical human however technology is really pushing for meaningful connectedness and virtual or holographic learning may be a norm in the future. It's a little science fiction but the reality is that the technology is already here.

Creating creative content has been around since the onset of video games and if you want to see the development of creativity in this field you can't go past looking at Project Spark. Mr13 has been a BETA tester for Microsoft with this project and he has had a real ball creating his own video games. Mr13 is creating, problems solving, using various modes of digital literacy, story telling, maths, spacial awareness and the list goes on. Looking at life through Mr13 is a different lens to that are Mrs near 40.

It seems that learning is not all about the cool technology tools but the teenagers of today are pushing for a different way to learn in a space that is pedagogically modern and relevant to the jobs skills needed in the future.


G. Conole, Designing for learning in an open world. New York, NY: Springer. Available as ebook from CSU library.
Conole, G. (2012). Open, social and participatory media, Chapter 4. In G. Conole, Designing for learning in an open world. New York, NY: Springer. Available as ebook from CSU library.
Microsoft Corporation (2013), Project Spark, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m37sVEgJrOA
North Coast Institute TAFE (2015), Virtually Hyperconnected, https://www.facebook.com/virtuallyhyperconnected/timeline
Rheingold, H (2014) Network Awareness, https://vimeo.com/86182564